So what does referencing include?
A. In-text citations, which could take three forms:
- Paraphrasing, for which you keep carefully the original author’s >B. A reference list during the end of the essay, which include details such as for instance:
- Date of publication
- Publisher and put of publication (for books)
- Journal name, issue and volume(for journals)
- Internet address or doi (digital object >
Referencing is integral to academic essay writing and shouldn’t be viewed as an ‘add-on’. If you are referencing, always use a referencing guide to help you ensure 100% accuracy.
Normally, when writing an essay at university you’re going to be likely to only use academic sources. The following learning guide on source credibility will assist you to determine whether an external source is academic or otherwise not.
The chocolate essay uses the APA form of referencing, that is easy to distinguish from the Harvard Author-Date System, given that format is different:
|try to achieve a balance between both types of in text-references in your essay writing.|
In the APA model of referencing, the reference list has conventions that are certain you must also follow. Here are a few examples from the chocolate essay:
|Don’t make referencing something you do just as an editing or proofreading activity. Include your in-text citations and reference list in your first draft.|
An website that is excellent assistance with your APA referencing could be the APA Interactive tool at Massey University.
Leave yourself time that is enough look at your essay more often than once. For a 1000 word essay you will need at the least 3 days to redraft your essay.
|Always save each draft as a separate file; then you can observe how your essay develops and improves.|
Here are the kinds of questions you should think about:
You can glance at other checklists such as this one on editing your personal work.
Let’s observe how the writer of the chocolate essay redrafted their original introduction:
Now compare the above mentioned with all the draft that is final
Since Spanish explorers cut back chocolate from the new world, chocolate consumption is actually a phenomenon that is worldwide. A derivative of the cacao bean, was consumed as a drink, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form at first, chocolate. However, chocolate’s inherent popularity does not equate to it possessing healthy properties, as suggested because of the title. The realities of chocolate are more down seriously to earth; a number of those realities will likely to be addressed in this article. Chocolate has chemical properties that may influence mood and there’s possible evidence for some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health. Yet, such attributes that are positive counterbalanced somewhat because of the argument that, in some instances, chocolate can be viewed as a drug as opposed to a food. Moreover, there is the probability of some correlation between over-consumption of chocolate and obesity. Thus, it’s going to be argued that despite chocolate’s positive effect in some cases on mood while the cardiovascular system it has in addition been linked to addiction and obesity.
Invest some time and stay careful when redrafting—it will be worth every penny!
How will you write in an academic way?
Your lecturers may wish to hear your ‘voice’ because they read your essay.
Imagine your essay as a type or kind of story. You are the storyteller that is principal the interior voice of the writer, leading your reader right through to your conclusion.
Through the story, you will find different voices that appear every once in awhile. They are the external voices (citations) that add substance to your story, providing detail and support for what you may be saying and on occasion even giving an perspective that is alternative. The external voices could be divided into two categories in your essay: the direct external voice of an author (through a direct quote) therefore the indirect external voice of an author (through a paraphrase).
Your reader has to know at all right times whose voice they truly are hearing. Will it be your voice that is internal or external voice of other authors?
You could wonder tips on how to include your own voice but still sound academic if you’re currently talking about a area that is subject which you have little (or no) knowledge. Including your voice doesn’t mean that you ought to say ‘I think’ or ‘in my opinion’.
Below are a few samples of the critical/analytical language you present other people’s ideas that you can use as your own internal voice when:
|Showing which you recognise a wide range of authors have reached a similar conclusion, and you also might/might not agree with it|
|One advantageous asset of the work of Smith and Jones (2010)…||Showing that you are positively engaging with an external source|
Let’s look at one of many paragraphs from the chocolate essay to see how the text is an interplay associated with the internal voice regarding the writer while the external voices of other authors.
The voice that is internal of writer is colour-coded in yellow; the indirect external voices of other authors (in other words. paraphrases) are coded in grey; additionally the direct external voices of other authors (i.e. quotations) are coded in blue.
This might be a balanced paragraph. The writer sets the scene at the beginning of the sentence that is topic also links together all of the sentences, utilizing their own voice to lead into content which will be given by the external voices.
Go through the same paragraph re-written, with all the quantity of the writer’s voice substantially reduced:
Here the writer just isn’t ‘in charge’ regarding the paragraph, also it reads similar to a listing. That is one thing your lecturers do not want to see.
|if you are drafting your paragraphs, use a colour-coding system like usually the one used here. It will help you make sure your academic voice is clear!|
When you have more confident in using external sources, you are going to gradually expand the language of the critical internal voice. The Phrasebank website at Manchester University provides samples of even more expressions to use when assessing sources that are external.
Editing is targeted on the picture that is big such as for example overall structure, appropriate paragraphing and whether or not the question has been answered.
Proofreading has a micro-focus on the main points of your essay, such as formatting, grammar and punctuation.
Everybody has their own style that is personal of and proofreading. You will need to focus on the kinds of errors you commonly make by looking at the marker’s comments on your previous work.
Some individuals proofread alone; some get other folks involved. Having others involved is a idea that is really good.